Machinery for mining, conveyors, loaders bucket body, bucket teeth etc. have components which requires high resistance to abrasion together with toughness and weldability. Such components are mostly martensitic steel produced by quenching or quenching / tempering which is energy intensive process and has high chances of causing distortion in the products. Thus new steel has been designed which transforms into fine lath of carbide free bainite during air cooling. This design is adopted by maximizing the driving force and lowering the transformation temperature.
The choice of alloying elements is adopted to achieve good combination of strength and toughness. For example, higher silicon concentration alloy is found to be more effective in partitioning the carbon to retained austenite which stabilizes the austenite providing better toughness to the steel. High Chromium –low Manganese steel provides low transformation temperature and large driving force resulting in fine bainitic steel. It showed 4 times lesser specific wear loss as compared to martensitic grade steel of comparable hardness. However, formation of allotriomorphic ferrite along with bainite is deleterious to wear property and its specific wear loss increases to 6 times as compared to carbide free bainite steel.